专辑英文名: Mozart Divertimenti
专辑中文名: 莫札特 嬉游曲
艺术家: Scottish Chamber Orchestra Wind Soloists
版本: [24bits 96KHz]
Original Release Date: February 3, 2015
Label: Linn Records
Copyright: © 2015 Linn Records
Total Length: 1:06:54
Inspired by the legacy of the great Mozartian conductors of the SCO including Sir Charles Mackerras, the Wind Soloists make a fine contribution to the SCO's distinguished Mozart discography.
Download includes - cover art, inlay, booklet
'These performances wonderfully capture the charm of these Mozart chamber works, each instrument oozing a delightfully unforced sense of personality...I fancy Mozart would have smiled in approval.'
Following the success of performances and recordings of Weber's Wind Concertos with SCO principals as soloists, the SCO Wind Soloists that feature on this album have since 2012 started to explore Harmoniemusik repertoire.
This new recording includes four of the five Tafelmusik sextets for pairs of clarinets, horns and bassoons, together with the Serenade in E flat major, the first of Mozart's three great wind serenades. The Serenade in E flat major has many unusual features. Its opening fanfare - a series of repeated chords on the tonic in E flat - immediately catches the ear. The fact that Mozart avoids fatiguing the listener with a surfeit of the same sonorities, in music with a necessarily limited dynamic and instrumental range, bears eloquent testimony to his genius.
This recording captures the wealth of detail in Mozart's Divertimenti; there is something in each of them for every music lover.
Comprising pairs of clarinet, bassoons and natural horns, the players are dedicated to performing each work in a stylish and informed way, from the masterpieces of Mozart, Beethoven and Weber to twentieth-century works and contemporary commissions. The SCO Wind Soloists are: Maximiliano Martín clarinet, William Stafford clarinet, Peter Whelan bassoon, Alison Green bassoon, Alec Frank-Gemmill horn, Harry Johnstone horn.
'Like the SCO proper, they straddle a distinctive stylistic line between period sensibility and mostly modern instruments. The notable exception, the natural horns, which gave superb balance and character.' The Herald
'You'd be hard-put finding better wind ensemble playing.' The Guardian
Mozart as Entertainer
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is one of the few great composers who wrote occasional (that is, non-concert) music consistently throughout his life. Some of these works were meant to provide recreation for performers, both amateur and professional, in the casual atmosphere of their living rooms. Such Hausmusik includes the four-hand piano music, the piano trios and the lovely notturni for voices and basset horns. Mozart also provided orchestral dances for formal balls. His many sets of minuets, contredanses and German dances were written primarily after 1787, when he was named successor to Gluck as court composer to Joseph II.
The rest of the entertainment music falls into the somewhat interchangeable, and universally confused genres of divertimento, serenade, cassation, Nachtmusik, Harmoniemusik, Finalmusik and Tafelmusik. The names applied to Mozart’s various works today are taken from the nineteenth-century Breitkopf & Härtel complete works edition and often contradict those Mozart used to refer to individual pieces. We shall try to clarify the nature of the various genres by defining their differences; but one must recognize that all of these terms have overlapping meanings, and eighteenth-century composers evidently did not seem bound by narrowly drawn definitions. A chronological synopsis below lists both the traditional title and Mozart’s for each work.
Excluding Hausmusik and dances, Mozart’s occasional music may be classified into four genres. First is the music for parties, which provided a pleasant sonic background for social encounters. Such works could be played in the salon, or outdoors in the summer. Second, there is the formal ceremonial music, which added a festive quality to a wedding or an important appointment for a local figure, or marked a Church feast-day. These orchestral works were likewise performed both indoors and out. Third, there is the music specifically conceived for outdoor performances, especially at night. Finally, there is banquet music, provided by Mozart for the Archbishop’s dinners. The term divertimento would seem to be most appropriate to the music for parties, serenade and Finalmusik to the ceremonial works, Nachtmusik to the outdoor evening music (sometime also called serenade), and Tafelmusik (or again, divertimento) to the dinner music. In Mozart’s time, Harmoniemusik denoted the wind octet of two oboes, two clarinets, two horns and two bassoons; after about 1825, that designation was applied to all music for wind ensemble. The term cassation is problematic; in their great critical biography of Mozart, Teodor de Wyzewa and Georges de Saint-Foix claim it refers not to a specific genre, but to the performance practice of separating the various movements of an occasional work by pauses (from the French casser), as befitting the social event. (Such a view might explain why Mozart uses the designation in his youth for works of the Finalmusik genre, while later referring to the divertimenti for parties as cassations.) More recently Neal Zaslaw has put forward a more plausible, etymologically based hypothesis, tracing the title to the German phrase gassatim gehen (‘to walk about and perform in the streets’).
Form and Instrumentation
The basic formal structure of all four types of occasional music is derived from the four-movement symphonic mould. The dinner music contains the standard four, while the other three types use a flexible enlargement of it. A march typically prefaces and follows the divertimenti for parties and the serenade/Finalmusik works. Mozart’s marches are sparkling miniatures, a blend of solemnity and good humour. The marches to the divertimenti were usually played as the audience entered and left the performance room; those to the serenade/Finalmusik works were often memorized by the musicians, who then walked through Salzburg performing them to attract the public to the celebration. The first movement of the work itself is usually an allegro in sonata form, like that of a symphony (though often less complex). This is followed by a minuet and trio, and then the slow movement, in which an intimate, singing line in the uppermost instrument provides a moment of expressive contrast. After a second minuet and trio comes the finale, a light and often virtuoso work, usually cast in rondo form (in which a refrain alternates with contrasting episodes). The repetition of the march rounds off the symmetry of the total structure, which thus centers on the slow movement.
Mozart often adds to this basic model. Most typically, a theme with variations will follow either the first movement or the fourth. An additional slow movement appears in several of the works. Particularly theatrical is the interpolation within a piece of series of concertante movements, featuring a violin or some of the orchestral winds as soloist(s) of the ensemble; this practice is found in the serenades/Finalmusiken. The instrumentation of the works varies according to the specific genre. The divertimenti for parties are scored for strings with two horns; an additional wind instrument appears in two of the five. The serenades/Finalmusiken call for string orchestra with a large complement of winds; they sometimes include trumpets and timpani. The oboists who played these works were expected to play the flute as well: oboes are used in the outer movements, while flutes replace them in the middle ones. The Nachtmusik works are most often for winds alone (exceptions: the Notturno for four orchestras, K. 286/269a; the Serenata notturna, K. 239; and the most famous of Mozart’s occasional works, Eine kleine Nachtmusik, K. 525). Most Tafelmusiken were also for wind ensemble, as depicted in the second-act finale to Don Giovanni.
There is a miraculous perfection about all of Mozart’s music. The apparent effortlessness of his expression is sometimes ascribed to his uncanny grasp of contrast and proportion. Each phrase seems a complete personal utterance, yet part of the larger work – a scene in a cohesive drama. Moods, instrumental registers, dynamics and tempi – all are balanced in a musical language of consummate subtlety and rhythmic sophistication. In Mozart’s hands, the clichés that deaden the works of his contemporaries somehow coalesce in a simple exterior that masks a world of implications.
In the occasional music, Mozart seems to challenge his abilities by tying his compositional hands behind his back. The works are not conceived for concerts; therefore, there is an intentional lightness of material and a calculated absence of overt theatricality. Only a composer of Mozart’s genius could overcome these potentially fatal limitations. We can delight in the wealth of detail in these works or use them for casual background music, as they were usually heard in the eighteenth century. There is something in each of them for every music lover, on whatever level he or she seeks.
Alfred Einstein, who combined scholarly knowledge and profound aesthetic insight into Mozart’s style, has said of the occasional music, ‘There are people who would trade a whole act of Tannhäuser or Lohengrin for one of these works, a lost paradise of music’. May these performances encourage wider appreciation of this paradise, in all its translucent perfection.
The present recording includes four of the five Tafelmusik sextets for pairs of clarinets, horns and bassoons, together with the Serenade in E flat major, K. 375.
Divertimento in B flat major, K. 240 (Breitkopf & Härtel No. 9)
The second of the five Tafelmusik sextets (the first, in F major, K. 213, is not included in the present recording), K. 240 is more carefully worked out than its predecessor. The first movement uses more thematic material, displays more dynamic contrasts, and has an interesting formal structure: like several of the early piano sonatas, the first theme appears at the end of the recapitulation, rather than at its outset. This procedure, also used by Michael Haydn, will be found again in the F major string/horn Divertimento, K. 247. The second movement of K. 240 is ampler than that of K. 213; its sequential theme is accompanied by a semi-polyphonic texture of great beauty. Instead of a dance rondo à la K. 213, the finale is a full sonata movement.
Divertimento in E flat major, K. 252/240a (Breitkopf & Härtel No. 12)
The third of the Tafelmusiken is formally the most adventurous work in the series. Mozart begins with a slow movement in 6/8, in miniaturized sonata form, proceeds to the minuet, then interpolates a second dance – a polonaise – to make up for the missing first allegro. The ‘Polonaise’ is in the dominant key of B flat and is quite elaborate, both in its extended second half and brief coda. Only the last movement, ‘Presto assai’, fits the normal mould. (Its coda elicits a rare solo appearance by the two horns.) According to Zaslaw, it may be based upon the folk tune ‘Die Katze lässt das Mausen nicht’ (‘The cat doesn’t give up catching mice’).
There are two fermatas (holds) in the first movement. It is uncertain whether Mozart really wished the top instrument in the ensemble to improvise – often such holds imply improvisation by the principal voice – or whether Mozart was wittily stopping the music for a few seconds to see whether the Archbishop would look up from his plate!
Divertimento in F major, K. 253 (Breitkopf & Härtel No. 13)
The fourth Tafelmusik sextet has just three movements. The first is an andante theme with variations, in which Mozart’s growing expertise in wind-writing is evident. Though the uppermost voice continues to dominate the ensemble, there is more prominent solo writing for the other instruments. The second half of the theme is interrupted by a rather abrupt pause on the dominant; the resulting tension is ingeniously renewed in each variation. The last variation is simply a faster reading of the theme. The other two movements are more typical – the standard minuet and trio, and a lusty allegro assai.
Divertimento in B flat major, K. 270 (Breitkopf & Härtel No. 14)
The fifth work of the wind sextet series has the most developed first movement. It is fuller in its proportions, more symphonic in concept and it immediately foreshadows the great E flat sextet for pairs of clarinets, horns and bassoons of 1781, K. 375, included in the present recording. Mozart has rapidly progressed from a treatment of accompanied solo oboe (in the original scoring, solo clarinet here) to a balanced, colourful ensemble in which obbligato horn parts and duets between oboe (here clarinet) and bassoon set off the solo oboe (clarinet) passages. There is a direct connection between the expansion of the form and the enrichment of the part writing: the timbral changes create contrasts that justify the ampler musical ideas. Instead of a series of simple tunes with straightforward accompaniment, Mozart uses subtleties of rhythm and harmony to more dynamic purpose. For example, the brief opening forte is immediately followed by a piano section, in which a repeated melodic fragment in the clarinets is punctuated by a response in the horns, and underscored by the ostinato tonic note in the first bassoon. The result is the kind of excitement and anticipation one associates with the beginnings of overtures or concerti. Similarly, the second theme is not in the new key of the dominant, F major, but poised on the threshold of that key. The implicative aura of this type of idea contributes to the greater coherence and overall interest more than the typical stable theme group.
The wind octet consisting of pairs of oboes, clarinets, horns and bassoons was one of the most popular instrumental combinations of the Classic and early Romantic eras. It had a special name – Harmoniemusik – which only later became used as a general term for any combination of wind instruments. The medium was ideal for entertainment purposes, indoor and outdoor, and many noblemen had their private Harmonien, thus fueling the demand for new octets, which both major and minor composers hastened to fill. Mozart preserved for us one of the most important social functions of the Harmonie – that of providing banquet music for a sovereign – in the finale to Act II of Don Giovanni.